Human Sciences: Selective Attention Test

1. Why did you choose the study you did?

I think the study is really cool. I never noticed the gorilla. I think it is really interesting that people can be so concentrated on one thing that they ignore their surroundings.

2. Summarize the experiment.

We are suppose to count the number of passes by the people in white shirt. However the really purpose was to see if we noticed the gorilla when will are concentrating on counting.

3. What is the experiment trying to show?

I think the experiment was trying to show that when people concentrate on one thing really hard, they are unaware of the surroundings.

4. Do you agree with the experiments results? Why or why not?

Yes I agree. I think the experiment can be applied in real life situations. For instance, when I am reading a book, I can’t hear what others are telling me.

Market Failure – Public Education

Article: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/11/12/the-price-of-college-is-rising-faster-for-public-schools-than-private-ones/


Market Failure in Public Education

Market failure is a failure of allocating resources efficiently in a market or allocative inefficiency. There is either an overallocation in which too many resources are allocated to it’s production or a under-allocation where too few resources are allocated.

Lack of public goods is a form of market failure. Public goods are goods that are non-rivalrous, meaning the consumption by one person does not reduce the consumption of others. Public goods are also non-excludable, meaning it is not possible to exclude others from using.

Figure 1

Figure 1

The figure above shows a Consumption Positive Externality graph. On the Marginal Private Benefit curve, at the market price Pm, there’s a quantity demanded and supplied at Qm, we are at allocative efficiency or Pareto optimality where MPC equals to MPB. However if we include the social benefit or the positive externalities, in this case the skills acquired and knowledge learnt from these public schools that can benefit the wider community in many ways, the supply curve should be at the Marginal Social Benefit curve. At the MSB curve, if the market price was still at Pm, we can see that the Marginal social cost does not equal to the Marginal social cost, there is shortage of public education. Instead the Marginal social benefit is greater. The market is not at allocative efficiency, there is a misallocation of resources, in this case there is a underallocation of public education. The price will signal the market to reallocate resources, and we will eventually be at the social optimum price, Popt. At the optimum social price, Popt there will be a quantity of Qopt demanded and supplied. We are again, at allocative efficiency where the Marginal Social Cost = Marginal Social Benefit.

However this situation will not happen to public goods (public education) unless the government intervenes. There will still be a under-provision of public education, not because of the unwillingness of consumption but because firms aren’t willing to produce it and even if firms did, the price of education will still be unaffordable for some families. Private firms would still provide private education because they have an incentive to provide excludable goods where they can charge a price. But since public goods are non-rivalrous and non-excludable, public goods illustrates a free rider problem where people can enjoy goods and services without paying for it. Due to this problem, no profit-maximizing firm would be willing to produce goods that cannot be sold at some price. Because of this, the market fails by not being able to produce goods that are non-excludable, thus leading to resource misallocation as there is a lack of resource allocated to public goods.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Seen in figure 2, there’s a way to correct the market failure in public education. Government can intervene and address the market failure by implicating direct government provision. Through the government provisions, supply increases from the old supply curve S curve to the new supply curve S+Government Provision. As a result we get a new equilibrium where the price, Pc is lower than the market price Pm but at the same time there is a social optimal quantity demanded. As a result there will be more public schools supplied and due to the decrease in price, more people will be able to access these public education.

As seen in the article there are a lot of public schools in the US. These publics school are all funded by the government. Through government provisions, the government can ensure that education is produced at a socially desirable level through the funding of public schools. Public schools are directly provided by the government and are made available free or nearly free of charge. However as seen in the article, there has been a drastic increase in school fees for public schools. This increase contradicts to the idea of ‘public’ school. The purpose of this government provision is to make education non-excludable. However, with the increasing fee, public schools has become excludable. The article mentions that public-school fees are increasing faster than private schools. This shows how inefficient the government is addressing to the market’s failure to provide public education.

In the short run, students won’t be able to afford education if the price increases and if there isn’t enough enrollment, there will be unemployment for teachers and staffs. Also, the government will have to increase their funding for schools in order to provide public education at a socially desirable level. However, with an increase in funding, the government will have to cut down funding for other services or even increase tax.

In the long run, if all schools were excludable, only some people can afford it. Many students won’t be able to afford education, thus it might result in them having a hard time searching for jobs, leading to more unemployments. Some advantages of the rapid increase in public-school fee could be for Private firms, where there might be a higher demand for private schools since the cost of enrolling is basically the same, or even, less.

[CAS] Prop Making – Entry 3

Today, I completed the box for my sword.

  • What thinking skills were essential in completing this activity? Some of the skills I needed in order to complete this activity is probably DT and crafting skills. This included, using hot glue gun, cutting and spray painting

     

 

[CAS] Prop Making – Entry 2

Materials: Hardboard, thin pipe, spray paint…etc

Today, I continued working on the 3D maneuver. So far so good.

I bought the materials I needed over the weekend. Also,I finished making the base of the sword holder. It took me quite long to complete this. I had to figure out a way to bend the really thick material that I was using. Also, the cutting of the board was hard (I’m not really good at cutting). I ruined one of the board in my first try.

The process is as seen in the video above! Go check it out!

  • What thinking skills were essential in completing this activity? Some of the skills I needed in order to complete this activity is probably my crafting skills.
  • Meeting the learning outcome: This relates to one of the learning out comes, “Undertaking new challenges” because crafting isn’t something I do normally. Even though its simple steps like cutting and folding, it still found it quite challenging. From this, I also figured out ways to bend thick boards easily and that is to cut the board lightly first. I also “Developed some new skills” through this activity.

What I’ve made so far. I think what I’ve made turned out well. The scale is just perfect and the cutting is quite neat!

IMAG1489

 

[CAS] Prop Making – Entry 1

Today I started planning what I want to make for my prop. In the end, I decided to make a 3D Maneuver Gear from a anime called Shingeki no Kyojin. Looking at what the prop looks like, I already know it is going to be a really long and hard project that can challenge me and help build my skills in designing props as well as working with DT tools.

After I decided on what my project would be. I, along with some other people, worked on the dimensions as seen on the left. Calculating the dimensions were probably the hardest part. Since we didn’t the dimensions given to us, we had to look at other people wearing the prop and calculate the dimensions based on the scale seen in the photo.

Besides the dimensions, I also planned out what the materials I will be using. Some of them include, pipes, hard boards, duct tape, paper roll and many more.

IMAG1458

  • What thinking skills were essential in completing this activity? Some of the skills I needed in order to complete this activity is probably investigation skills. We had to investigate what type of prop we were going to make. Also, we had to investigate on props other people had made and then calculate the dimensions based on that.
  • With whom did you interact, and how did that interaction shape the experience? Some of the people interacted with are the people who are making the same prop. Through this interaction and cooperation, we managed to get something hard done in a really quick time. At the same it, the interaction made the activity a lot more fun and interesting through the different “discussions” we had.
  • How did this activity expand your understanding of why the IB puts CAS at the core? Even though I just started CAS, I already know that this CAS experience will help me grow with the different skills and learning outcomes I will gain. I am already starting to learn new skills. More importantly, skills I wouldn’t necessarily learn in class. At the same time, this CAS journey, will allow me to be a balanced person in terms of academics and being a creative individual.

I look forward to making this prop. I look forward to the CAS journey ahead of me.

How do you use induction on a daily basis?

Identify 3 context in which you use induction outside o the classroom

  • There isn’t much people in this restaurant, this restaurant probably doesn’t have delicious food.
  • There are many people in there, something important must be happening.
  • An ambulance just arrived, someone must be hurt.

Discuss the conclusion you derive

  • If there isn’t many people in a restaurant, this probably means the restaurants isn’t popular. This most logical explaination to why it’s unpopular is because of the quality of food.
  • If there are many people gathered together, it is obvious that something is happening that is worth seeing, this may mean something important is happening.
  • If you see an ambulance it is only logical to think that someone is hurt.

How induction is helpful: Induction is a really good way for raising up claims. Having to observe before making claims allows to have evidence on why we believe the claim.

Problems of truth in this process: Some problem of truth in the process of induction could be that our observations are inaccurate, like any other science observation, there are always times where the results or the observations of inaccurate. Also, there are different variables that we need to consider while making these observation or else the observation won’t be reliable, or even, tell us the truth. For instance, it could be that we are at the restaurant during a work day, because of this, there isn’t much people at the restaurant and not because of the food.